Menkauhor was the least known pharaoh of the 5th dynasty, but there are several archaeological discoveries proving his contributions during his reign.
Menkauhor is considered to have been the 7th ruler of the 5th dynasty. He was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh, and is believed to have ruled at the end of the 25th century B.C. or the beginning of 24th century B.C. Menkauhor's reign is generally agreed to have been about eight years and he was a successor to King Nyuserre Ini.
Many historical sources support Menkauhor's reign, but there are very few artifacts from his reign that actually survived. In fact, it should not come as a surprise to know that he is one of the least known of all the pharaohs of the Fifth Dynasty.
There is much regarding Menkauhor's reign that is simply unknown. His birth name was Kalu and this was the name he acquired following his ascension to the throne. The meaning of Menkauhor's throne name is eternal. His relationship with his predecessors and successors is not clear. One of the major contributions from his reign is the solar temple and the pyramids. These are mentioned in different texts found in the private tombs. It is important to note that the 5th dynasty was famous for their solar temples, and the temple of Menkauhor was located either at Saqqara or Abusir.
It is estimated that the last solar temples were built during Menkauhor's reign. This is because his successors had drifted from worship in the solar cult to some extent. Moreover, the pyramid of Menkauhor remains unidentified. There are assumptions that the pyramid is located at Dashur. At the same time, it would imply a departure from Abusir. However, some historians strongly believe that the pyramid is located at Saqqara and there is lots of evidence to support this hypothesis.
It might be surprising to note that today the king is attested mainly by a small statue, which is currently located in the Egyptian museum based in Cairo. Some other pieces of evidence are a small relief showing admiration for the king and his glory, and the relief is located at the Cleveland Museum of Art. A seal bearing his name was also found in Abusir. Therefore, it can be said that even if the king was not recognized during his reign, the ancient evidence found still gives due importance to him.
In addition to his contribution to the construction of different temples and monuments, Menkauhor greatly expanded ventures in turquoise and copper mines located in Sinai. During his reign, he also continued to quarry stones like his predecessors and successors. His pyramids were also built here. Even the ruins have been lost in the sands, but remnants were discovered in 2008. Until the end of the period of the old kingdom, the figurine of the king was at the center of the funerary cult. Menkauhor's queen(s) have not been identified as of yet.